Environmental Science: Modern Fundamentals

Environmental science is a road map to today’s most significant threats to the Earth. From natural, observable issues to discoveries through research, environmental science helps teach humanity about the planet on which the species lives. Read about modern applications and fundamentals surrounding ecological science. Explore what makes this such a vital subject to study and discover new things about the topic.

Several significant issues you and I read about in the news involve the environment. The goal of environmental studies within the natural sciences is to learn how to help the planet. With so many threats to ecosystems and atmosphere, an entire branch of research helps to engage with these inquiries. Environmental science can be a great way to learn about the common issues discussed in the news. We understand the fundamentals of the subject to lend our minds to great discoveries.

Environmental Science is the study of the Earth’s environmental conditions and nature. By studying the natural, observable world on Earth, scientists can discover new things about the globe. As more and more human-made inventions impact the Earth significantly, environmental science aims to understand how to reduce harm. There are significant hazards in the way of this subject, but researchers continue looking for solutions to the Earth’s natural threats. 

If you have ever pondered to learn more about nature and climate change, then this is the perfect subject for you. There is a deep, meaningful history of environmental science. That said, modern fundamentals can help you discover the truths we know about today’s hottest issues. Let’s begin with an overview of the environmental sciences.

What are the Environmental Sciences?

In a nutshell, Environmental Science is the study of the past, present, and potential future environmental conditions on Earth. In this context, the “environment” is talking about the natural world, primarily the biosphere and atmosphere of our planet—I.e., our environment that we depend on for survival. So, Environmental Science involves integrating a plethora of fields to understand the complexities of the world around us and our relationship together.

That last part, about the interaction between us and the environment, is especially important these days. Our actions as a species have begun to change the situation in many ways. So much so, that more often than not, it causes ourselves significant harm. Environmental Science tries to identify and mitigate these adverse effects we have on the environment to keep the planet and our species healthy and sustainable.

Biology, chemistry, ecology, and geoscience are some of the leading scientific fields used to study the natural world and the effects we have on it. But Environmental Science doesn’t just evaluate the natural world; it then relates findings to society. It works at assessing alternative energy sources and actively determining mitigation methods for pollution or the effects of climate change. New policies, regulations, and treaties are created based on scientific findings.

Butterflies and Dominoes: The Scope of Environmental Science

Environmental Science covers everything from local micro-systems to the global atmospheric climate. The idea of the butterfly effect takes root in reality, given how the smallest events in the most miniature systems can propagate throughout their surroundings. As they cause a domino effect, they can amplify surprising amounts. They can result in unexpectedly severe consequences from what we may have thought were insignificant actions.

Environmental Science might focus specifically on a local ecosystem and how all its components interact with one another. Or, it may evaluate how each local system interacts to form the parts of the entire planet’s environment. The following case study shows the complex interactions that occur between all of the different components of a medium-sized ecosystem. It demonstrates the far-reaching effects that one seemingly small change can have on the entire system.

A Case Study of Unforeseen Interactions

A famous example of revealing the environmental intricacies at play in the US is the removal and subsequent reintroduction of the grey wolf from Yellowstone National Park. In the early 1900s, wolves were hunted virtually to extinction within the park by ranchers wanting to protect their livestock. The absence of the wolves changed the entire ecosystem for the worse.

Elk populations within the park grew once their primary predator wasn’t around. The more significant numbers of elk were also able to graze more heavily, destroying many essential plants in the park. These plants provided shelter for birdlife and food for beavers.

With little plant shelter available, the birds left, and insect populations were left uncontrolled. The decrease in the beaver population from lack of food led to changes in the entire geography of the park. Their dams had controlled stream hydrology and runoff, recharging the water table and providing cold shaded water for fish. Without the beavers, water supply faltered, and fish populations decreased.

Fortunately, the wolves reintroduced to the park in 1995, and most of these effects reversed, and the system rebounded to its previous state. Now imagine this wolf example with a current rate of 100 to 1,000 species per million per year lost around the globe due to human actions.

What happened to Yellowstone is mostly happening to the world ecosystem, only without replacing the lost majority. And species loss is only the tip of the slowly melting iceberg.

The Rise of Environmental Science

The significant effects of small changes in local ecosystems above, it’s easy to see how over 7 billion people can have a massive impact on the entire planet. Even the most minor actions on an individual level add up when there are so many humans doing them. This fact means the rise of environmental science is due to the increase in human population numbers and technological advances having unforeseen side effects.

It’s Always Been a Problem, But a Smaller One

Pre-industrial revolution, the world population grew steadily but slowly for about 50,000 years, only reaching a billion at about the year 1800 AD. Some environmental problems had happened during this time but were all relatively localized.

The Greenland Norse failed to adapt to their newly conquered but very environmentally different land, leading to their downfall. The Easter Islanders overused their resources to the point of destroying the entire ecosystem and society. But throughout history, the mistreatment of the environment was typically only the mistreatment of a small part of it, not the whole planet.

Things Picked up Speed

This changed when the Industrial Revolution hit in the late 1700’s. During the next 200 years or so leading up to today, population then grew by over 600% of this 1800 AD reference, reaching the current number of about 7.5 billion. Environmental Science wasn’t a big field before the revolution. We didn’t use so many resources that we had to worry if there were enough of them or that the waste couldn’t be reabsorbed by the environment. And they didn’t have the same widespread harmful effects as modern production methods, byproducts, and waste.

But then, the advent of machinery, large factories, and mass production contributed to increased fuel consumption. Increased fuel consumption (when from unclean sources like wood, coal, and fossil fuels of the time) meant more pollution into the environment. Advances in standards of living then led to higher populations of people using these polluting fuels in their new machines and products.

The Start of Policy Changes

The first concerns of Environmental Science were for problems that were very obvious, or necessary for immediate survival. Farmers had to learn to properly rotate grazing animals and crops to avoid exhausting soil capabilities. And people in London absolutely could not ignore the polluting effects of factories and cars with events like the Great Smog of London that killed thousands of people in December of 1952. This horrific event specifically leads to the implementation of the Clean Air Act in 1956 to force industrial, commercial, and residential sectors to improve power generation methods. Cleaner fuels and more efficient machinery were required to reduce emissions in the dense urban area.

Similarly, in the mid-1900s, the hole in the Ozone layer was such a drastic and sudden event that the entire world immediately took notice and began researching it. This reality quickly led to conclude that the hole would be very harmful and that CFCs were to blame. The Montreal Protocol emerged in 1987 since the gap has begun to recover.

But many environmental problems aren’t as in-your-face as these, as we saw with the wolves example. It’s also difficult for people to accept that we can cause dramatic effects on not just one city or the local area, but the entire planet. The challenge now is to educate everyone on the impact our lifestyle has on the Earth, and understand that even if a problem is not apparent, that doesn’t mean it’s not a problem that needs addressing.

Environmental Science Issues Today Landscape of the unique beautiful geology and monasterys of meteora Greece.

The Most Relevant Environmental Science Issues Today

Although it may sometimes feel, living in large cities, as if we have successfully separated ourselves from nature, this is certainly not the case. We are situated in the natural world and entirely dependent on the environment for our basic needs.

Climate Change

Sometimes also known as global warming, climate change is the change in overall global climate (as opposed to local weather). Although climate change has mostly happened in cycles throughout Earth’s history, this particular instance caused by humans.

Its effects with the most significant implications for our well-being are the average increasing atmospheric and ocean temperatures, hence the term global warming. The below issues all stem from this primary characteristic.


Imagine how these changes to the environment affect our food production, which still very much depends on the conditions of soil, water tables, climate, and pollinators.

Even off the land, many food supplies sourced from delicate ecosystems such as coral reefs and deep sea beds. Increasing atmospheric temperatures cause the agriculturally viable area to become drier and less productive, decreasing food production. Changes to the heat of the world’s oceans (which subsequently cause changes to the chemistry) cause coral reefs to die, leading to shortages of fish stocks.

Natural Disasters

Rising atmospheric temperatures also cause increased severity of natural disasters. As oceans warm up, tropical storms are more powerful, and sea level increases, causing further damage to human populations and pushing them away from coasts.

Hotter, drier summers also cause increased frequency and severity of forest fires and even landslides. Droughts from warm temperatures can be followed by severe storms, causing the overly dry soil to collapse in more dramatic and devastating ways.

Conflict and Immigration

Immigration then increases as people flee low-lying coastal areas and leave increasingly arid and agriculturally unproductive areas in favor of those which provide more hospitable conditions. Disputes also arise over scarce resources, such as oil, land, and water. We are already seeing the effects of increased conflict and immigration worldwide which will only worsen as these factor’s contribute more and more.


Deforestation has a deep relationship with each of the above factors. An increased population leads to an increased need for lumber as well as land for various purposes. But forests are carbon sinks that absorb carbon, meaning that fewer forests lead to more carbon in the atmosphere (and higher resulting temperatures).

Dark fauna also absorbs light, meaning that deforestation causes lighter colored land and buildings to reflect more light into the atmosphere, further increasing temperature. Slash-and-burn agricultural methods also have adverse long-term effects on soil quality and biodiversity.

Thinking About Studying Environmental Science?

For someone who wants to help fix the above problems, a degree in Environmental Science is a great place to start. The field is diverse and very interdisciplinary, so you need to be prepared for a wide range of materials.

Environmental Science degrees are increasingly available at universities around the world, with hundreds available in the US alone. More advanced degrees, such as those from master’s programs, might focus on particular facets of the field. Bachelor’s applications, on the other hand, will usually focus on a foundation of basic physical sciences that branches out into a wide array of study areas.

More Than Just a Piece of Paper

Sure, earning a degree helps you grow your mastery of the subject and get a job. But it also allows you to contribute to the current pool of knowledge in the issue. Most universities, particularly in the US, are research institutions that both teach new students ancient wisdom as well as discover new knowledge. Students in the advanced stages of degrees contribute to these discoveries by assisting with research or conducting their thesis and research projects.

Currently, universities research to answer specific questions. The significant issues include; in what ways is the environment changing? How much and how quickly is it changing? Which aspects are specifically due to human actions? How can we reduce adverse effects? What can we do to adapt to inevitable changes?

But each student contributing to research and advancement through a degree will likely help answer a much more niche question. Something like, “How does this specific molecule change under temperature fluctuation of 1 degree in the presence of another specific molecule?” Or something equally specific. While answering these small questions may not feel like contributing huge strides to Environmental Science advancement, they are critical small steps that add up over time.

Types of Environmental Science Degrees

As with practically any scientific or technical degree, the associate’s will not typically be sufficient. A bachelor’s degree is the lowest level you should expect to complete, possibly followed by a master’s degree or doctorate. The final level you reach will depend on what you plan to do with the degree.

Straight Science

Fields like academia, scientific research, and advanced scientist positions probably need more than a bachelor’s. If you’re not confident in what you want to do or whether your dream job will require a higher degree, you can try asking advisors at your school, or checking out job boards for that position. Some companies and organizations will even accept entry-level employees with a bachelor’s with a plan to fund their higher education in the future. This status gives the organization the ability to tailor your training to their specific needs, making you more valuable for their field.
As far as a subject focuses, Environmental Science degrees come in many shapes and sizes. Specializations are often in scientific areas, as the name might suggest. Work in these focus areas consists of lab testing, collecting field samples, or using data collected by others to test scientific theories relating to the environment.


Still in the scientific area but getting more into other fields might be a degree focusing on technology. The most innovative steps towards decreasing our effects on the environment are results of progress in the field of technology. Environmental scientists help design new clean energy technology, or tech to help clean messes already in the background.

Political and Economic

Branching away from the scientific, you find degrees focused on applying Environmental Science to political and economic sectors. Policymaking is a considerable endeavor that aims to make the Environmental Science part of everyday life. Policies aim to put consistent requirements in place for citizens, companies, governments, and organizations of all kinds. The regulations enforce standards that environmental scientists have determined to be optimally beneficial to the environment.


Some degrees may also turn to what are often the most desperate situations. Humanitarian aid is intricately related to environmental problems because they often lead to natural disasters. There is also a distinct relationship between undeveloped or developing countries and ecological problems/natural disasters. These less developed countries both tend to experience more negative consequences of global environmental changes, as well as have fewer capabilities to deal with those effects, leading to them requiring assistance.

By Development Level

For example, many island countries are less developed. Rising sea levels and intensified storms caused by climate change wreak havoc on the islands. But their poor economic status means it is difficult to repair, migrate, or reform in response. Thus, Environmental Science can pair with development economics to help find ways to assist these areas of the world.


Similarly, regardless of economic or development status, all regions of the world have their environmental problems. A degree in Environmental Science might focus on the weather patterns, resource deficiencies, or pollution problems associated with a particular region. Some location-specific areas of focus might include large ocean-driven storms like El Niño, sea-level rise in low lying areas, deforestation of rain forests, or melting of tundra and ice sheets.


Within all of these areas is the opportunity to focus your degree on further teaching, research, and education. This area might involve research and peer-reviewed publications at a higher learning institution. Or, it could include obtaining a degree aimed at certifying you to teach Environmental Science as a professor or high school teacher.

Courses You Can Expect to Take

The core areas focus first on the physical and biological sciences. A foundation in geosciences and geology helps understand the systems at play on the planet, which affect the environment. The water cycle and carbon cycle are the most important in this regard, as interactions between water and carbon dioxide drive climate change.

Chemistry and physics are the underlying factors that help us identify and predict the exact changes that are happening. And in the end, biology is our focus. The Earth itself has been both a ball of ice and hot ice-free rock in the past, and it was beautiful. But those types of changes would be very detrimental to our present and future well-being if they happened now.

Beyond the basics, courses start getting into the specifics of the most relevant environmental problems of today. You could expect to take various forms of ecological history, economics, politics, and multiple types of Earth Sciences.

Because Environmental Science studies human interactions with the environment, it can also involve some human behavioral science. Courses that integrate Environmental Science with economic and social aspects might be considered “Environmental Studies.” These courses could include behavioral economics or cultural analysis in the face of environmental changes.

What Careers can an Environmental Science Degree Yield?

As we saw above, a degree in Environmental Science can be extraordinarily interdisciplinary and versatile. This reality can lead to a significant amount of flexibility in the application of the degree to various areas of the workforce.

The top career paths are probably environmental scientists, engineers, and politicians. Scientists in the field can work for many organizations, from small private firms to large corporations to government. Government positions are increasingly popular as the majority of the world recognizes the consequences of climate change and the necessity of environmental scientists to combat it. Environmental scientists back up the policies, treaties, and other actions taken by governments in the face of climate change.

The ones making those changes in government are sometimes environmental scientists directly applying their knowledge to policymaking. As of 2018, record numbers of people with scientific backgrounds are running for political office. As scientific issues such as climate change and ever-increasing technological advances continue to have profound effects on the world, so our governments should hold to scientific standards in creating related laws. Besides the political office, careers as lawyers and consultants can have a more indirect influence on the creation of these laws.

Environmental Science technicians are also commonly employed by the government as well as companies. They help with compliance and safety issues by evaluating the standards of activities with potential environmental impacts. Pollution, waste treatment, hazardous materials, and environmental safety issues that affect public health are the main areas of specialization for these technicians.

Is Environmental Science in Demand?

The Bureau of Labor Statistics helps to explain the situation. It projects growth of about 11% in employment for environmental scientists and specialists though 2026. That rate is considered high, and some state growth rates are even significantly higher.

State and local governments are especially increasing their rates of employment for developing scientifically sound policies and regulations. They also use scientists to help ensure the enforcement of these legislative measures. Another surprising sector is feeling a push for environmental scientists in the energy industry. And not only the sustainable and renewable energy sectors but also in companies of non-renewables like oil and gas.

Companies such as these need environmental scientists to help them maintain standards put in place by government regulations. They also aim to develop new technologies to keep up with changing demands. Many traditionally oil and gas companies are beginning to invest in clean energy like solar, wind, and hydroelectric to prepare for what is (hopefully) an inevitable switch to primarily renewable energy sources.

What is an Average Salary for an Environmental Scientist?

80% of all salaries for environmental scientists in the US fell between about 40,000 and 122,000 dollars in 2017. The median wage in this range was about 69,000 dollars. Those jobs on the higher end of the pay spectrum are primarily for physical scientists and those employed by the federal government.

Government positions are the most common and generally well-paid, however local and state governments will not pay as much as the federal positions. At the local and state level, you can expect to make around the median of 69,000 dollars.

However, the experience level, of course, comes into play for the pay scale. You are more likely to be below the median when first starting, potentially between 40,000 and 50,000 dollars per year. Gaining experience, moving up the ladder in a company, or moving to different sectors can lead to increased earnings over time.

Specific locations can give you a leg up in finding a job with the most optimal pay. The states with the most significant net growth for employment in Environmental Science are California, Florida, Texas, New York, Colorado, and Washington. Find a full ranking with details about projections and regional variations in employment patterns here.

What is the Future of Environmental Science?

The current growth of environmental science is promising. We, as a species, realize that something needs to change. Environmental Science and all its applications will likely dominate the scientific, political, economic, and energy sectors in the coming decades. If not, we risk suffering severe consequences reasonably soon, within the next 50 to 100 years.

Environmental Science will also be an essential aspect of transplanting populations onto other planets in the future. While this is at least decades, if not centuries or millennia away, it is still important to prepare. At some time or another, humans will need to move on from this planet. And at that time we need to know how to cope with the next one. Understanding the effects, human populations can have on terrestrial systems can help us prevent over-doing it in the future. It is also essential knowledge for any potential agriculture or even terraforming of other planetary bodies. The potential applications are astronomical.

Further Reading to Learn More

If you desire to explore more about the intricacies and future developments in Environmental Science, check out these books:

Silent Spring by Rachel Carson

  • First published in 1962, this book unveiled the subtle but detrimental environmental effects of untamed pesticide usage. It ultimately leads to the creation of the Environmental Protection Agency.

Limits to Growth by Various Authors

  • Followed by the sequel “Limits to Growth; a Thirty-Year Update.” The authors of these books use computer simulations to show the effects of exponential population growth with a finite supply of resources.

Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed by Jared Diamond

  • Diamond identifies four leading causes of societal collapse in the past. Two of them, environmental changes and climate change, play considerable roles in many failures.

The Sixth Extinction by Elizabeth Kolbert

  • This book puts the recent loss of species due to human actions into perspective. It shows that current losses equal to the largest extinction event since the dinosaur-killing asteroid impact.

This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. The Climate by Naomi Klein

  • The book is an analysis of the relationship between economic systems and environmental problems.


You and I hear about the importance of environmental conservation every day. The topic is a common source of discussion for humans who want to make sure we don’t destroy Earth. Without knowledge of ecological science and its modern applications, we cannot make a difference for the globe. To best protect the Earth and educate yourself about the issues of today, continue researching and reviewing this subject.

Why do environmental science topics show up in the news so often?

What can help to inform the public of modern fundamentals of environmental science?

Who can benefit from learning more about the study of environmental science?

About David A. Smith aka Dave
About Dave

David Smith (Dave) has a B.S. and M.S. in Mathematics and has enjoyed teaching precalculus, calculus, linear algebra, and number theory at both the junior college and university levels for over 20 years. David is the founder and CEO of Dave4Math.

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